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Cardiovascular risk stratification in axial spondyloarthritis: carotid ultrasound is more sensitive than coronary artery calcification score to detect high-cardiovascular risk axial spondyloarthritis patients

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

  1. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  2. Division of Epidemiology and Computational Biology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, and CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.
  3. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  4. Division of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  5. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  6. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  7. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  8. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  9. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  10. Division of Rheumatology, Hospital Comarcal, Laredo, Cantabria, Spain.
  11. Division of Rheumatology, Hospital Comarcal, Laredo, Cantabria, Spain.
  12. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
  13. Division of Cardiology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo, Spain.
  14. Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain. miguelaggay@hotmail.com

CER10432 Submission on line
2018 Vol.36, N°1 - PI 0073, PF 0080
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Rheumatology Article

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the ability of Coronary Artery Calcification Score (CACS) and carotid ultrasonography (US) to detect high cardiovascular (CV) risk axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) patients.
METHODS:
CACS and carotid plaques were assessed in 66 consecutive ax-SpA patients (51 fulfilling criteria for ankylosing spondylitis and 15 for non-radiological ax-SpA) without history of CV events. The Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) calculated using total cholesterol (TC-SCORE) was assessed in 64 patients without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease.
RESULTS:
The mean age of the patients and the median disease duration since the onset of symptoms were 49.3 and 14.5 years. HLA-B27 was positive in 47 (75%) patients. CV risk was categorised according to the TC-SCORE as low (<1%; n=33), moderate (≥1% and<5%; n=30) and high/very high risk (≥5%; n=1). Most patients with low TC-SCORE (27/33; 82%) had normal CACS (zero), and only 1/33 had CACS >100. However, carotid plaques were observed in patients with CACS=0 (12/37; 32%) and CACS 1-100 (10/16; 62%). The sensitivity to detect high/very high CV risk using only the TC-SCORE was very low as the algorithm only detected 1/33 (3%) of patients with high/very high CV risk. Ten of 33 (30%) high/very high CV risk patients were identified using a chart TC-SCORE risk ≥5% plus the presence of CACS ≥100 in patients with moderate TC-SCORE. The replacement of CACS with carotid US identified a higher number of high/very high CV risk patients (22/33; 67%).
CONCLUSIONS:
Carotid US is more sensitive than CACS for the detection of high CV risk in ax-SpA patients.

PMID: 28850022 [PubMed]

Received: 21/03/2017 - Accepted : 05/05/2017 - In Press: 28/08/2017 - Published: 05/02/2018