D. Park1, J. Kang2, K. Lee3, S. Kang4, S. Kwok5, S. Kim6, J. Choe7, H. Kim8, Y. Sung9, K. Shin10, S. Lee11, C. Lee12, S. Choi13, S. Lee14
Depression is more common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to the general population. However, few studies have investigated risk factors of depression in SLE patients, and the results are inconsistent. This study evaluated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression in ethnically homogeneous Korean SLE patients.
In this study, 505 consecutive SLE patients were enrolled from the Korean Lupus Network registry. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, physician global assessment, and SLEDAI-2000 and SLICC damage index were recorded at enrolment. Patients were identified as having depressive symptoms using the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with a cut-off ≥16, and categorised into four groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for depression defined as a BDI score ≥16.
Of the 505 patients, 97 (19.2%) were diagnosed with depression. Patients with a higher BDI score were older, more likely to be a current smoker, and had a SLICC score >1. Conversely, they had lower income and educational levels. Regarding the serologic findings, patients with a higher BDI score had lower anti-double-stranded DNA positivity and higher anticardiolipin (aCL) positivity. On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with depression: current smoking status (OR 2.533, p=0.049), aCL-positivity (OR 2.009, p=0.035), and a SLICC damage index score >1 (OR 2.781, p=0.039). On the other hand, high-level education (OR 0.253, p=0.024) and a high income (OR 0.228, p=0.008) were negatively associated with depression.
Our results show that depression is prevalent in patients with SLE and multiple factors are associated with depression in SLE. These data could help guide target programmes for those at high risk of depression in SLE.
PMID: 29465349 [PubMed]
Received: 03/08/2017 - Accepted : 11/12/2017 - In Press: 14/02/2018