Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Turkey. email@example.com
A similar disease severity among men and women in Brasil, a high frequency of gastrointestinal involvement in China, Japan and USA, a low frequency of pathergy positivity in Japan and USA underline the ethnic variations reported in recent studies. Polymorphisms pertaining both to innate and adaptive immunity in genome wide association studies, clusters in phenotype, and new mechanisms for emerging therapeutic implications have been reported. A Th17 dominance seems to be likely with the exception of gastrointestinal involvement. Infliximab, interferon-alpha and cyclosporine-A may be showing their beneficial effects also by affecting the Th17 cells. The clinical course and outcome of isolated pulmonary artery thrombosis is similar to pulmonary artery aneurysms. Parenchymal lesions (nodules, consolidations, cavities and ground glass lesions) are common in patients with pulmonary involvement. Pericarditis is a frequent cardiac manifestation in France. Treatment of BS became more intensive than before. Immunosuppressives and corticosteroids seem to prevent relapses of venous thrombosis. Studies are needed to understand the role of anticoagulants. Interferon alpha-2a appears to be effective at lower dosage, which brings the advantage of decreased cost and increased tolerability. Switching between anti-TNF agents, when needed, is possible. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 are new promising targets.
PMID: 23009740 [PubMed]
Received: 17/08/2012 - Accepted : 30/08/2012 - In Press: 25/09/2012 - Published: 19/11/2012