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The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with systemic sclerosis: a psychometric and factor analysis in a monocentric cohort


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

 

  1. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  2. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  3. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  4. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  5. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, and University Hospital Bern, University of Bern, Switzerland.
  6. Department of Consultation-Liaison-Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  7. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  8. Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland. mikeoliver.becker@usz.ch

CER13998
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PMID: 33886453 [PubMed]

Received: 03/09/2020
Accepted : 16/11/2020
In Press: 21/04/2021

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the feasibility, validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and to analyse its model structure in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).
METHODS:
In this study, 316 systemic sclerosis patients were included; of these, 159 participated in the responsiveness analysis. Psychometric properties were tested in analogy to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) filter and an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the structure of HADS.
RESULTS:
The HADS showed adequate feasibility, validity, reliability, and responsiveness to clinically relevant worsening of the disease. For our population of SSc patients, the HADS model with two sub-scales, HADS-A and HADS-D, and a general scale HADS-S, measuring anxiety, depression, and distress, respectively, was most appropriate. The rates of anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) and distress identified by HADS were 32.2%, 25.9%, 18.5%, and 49.5%, respectively, in our cohort.
CONCLUSIONS:
The psychometric properties of the HADS make it useful for screening in SSc, where anxiety, depression, MADD, and distress represent a significant burden to patients.

Rheumatology Article