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A retrospective cohort study in Chinese patients with adult polymyositis and dermatomyositis: risk of comorbidities and subclassification using machine learning


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

 

  1. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  2. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; and Department of Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  3. Department of Obstetrics, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guangzhou, China.
  4. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  5. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  6. Department of Rheumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  7. Department of Rheumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  8. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  9. Department of Rheumatic & TCM Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou; and Department of Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  10. Department of Rheumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  11. Department of Rheumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
  12. Department of Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. lijuan@smu.edu.cn

CER14234
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PMID: 34251311 [PubMed]

Received: 17/11/2020
Accepted : 25/01/2021
In Press: 26/06/2021

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To identify the risk factors in Chinese patients with adult polymyositis and dermatomyositis for their comorbidities and explore a subclassification system.
METHODS:
Clinical records of 397 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were retrospectively reviewed. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk factors for interstitial lung disease (ILD), other rheumatic diseases, and malignancy after bivariate analysis. Hierarchical clustering and decisional tree were utilised to identify subgroups and explore a subclassification system.
RESULTS:
A total of 119 polymyositis and 191 dermatomyositis patients were included. Anti-PM/Scl, anti-Ro52, anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and anti-MDA5 (adjusted odds ratios (AOR)=4.779, 1.917, 5.092 and 7.714 respectively) antibodies were risks (p<0.05), whereas overlapping malignancy was protective (AOR=0.107; p=0.002) for ILD across polymyositis, dermatomyositis and the total group. In subgroup models, Raynaud’s phenomenon, arthralgia and semi-quantitative anti-nuclear antibody (AOR=51.233, 4.261, 3.047 respectively) were risks for other overlapping rheumatic diseases (p<0.05). For overlapping malignancy, male and anti-TIF1γ antibodies (AOR=2.533, 16.949) were risks (p<0.05), whereas disease duration and combination of ILD (AOR=0.954, 0.106) were protective in the total group (p<0.05); while anti-NXP2 antibodies were identified as risk factors (AOR=73.152; p=0.038) in polymyositis. Hierarchical clustering suggested a subclassification with 6 subgroups: malignancy overlapping dermatomyositis, classical dermatomyositis, polymyositis with severe muscle involvement, dermatomyositis with ILD, polymyositis with ILD, and overlapping of myositis with other rheumatic diseases.
CONCLUSIONS:
Accompanying ILD, other rheumatic diseases and malignancy are strongly associated with clinical manifestation and myositis-specific or myositis-associated autoantibodies among Chinese polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients. The subclassification system proposed a more precise phenotype defining toward stratified treatments.

Rheumatology Article